La relación carbono/nitrógeno como elemento de control en sistemas de acuicultura

Yoram Avnimelech)

Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícola, Technion, Instituto de Tecnología de Israel, Haifa 32000, Israel. Febrero 1999

Resumen

El Control del nitrógeno inorgánico (NH4-N) mediante la manipulación de la relación Carbono/nitrógeno es un potencial método de control para sistemas de acuicultura. Este enfoque parece ser una práctica barata para reducir la acumulación del nitrógeno inorgánico en el estanque. Se induce el control del nitrógeno mediante la alimentación de las bacterias con carbohidratos, y a través de la absorción subsiguiente del nitrógeno del agua, por la síntesis de proteínas microbianas. La relación entre la adición de carbohidratos, la reducción de amonio y la producción de proteínas microbianas depende del coeficiente de conversión microbiana, la relación de C/N en la biomasa microbiana, y el contenido de carbono del material añadido. Se encontró que la adición de sustrato rico en carbono puede reducir el nitrógeno inorgánico en tanques experimentales y en estanques a escala comercial de camarones y tilapia. Se encontró en estanques de tilapia que las proteínas microbianas producidas son incorporadas por los peces. Por lo tanto, parte de la alimentación se sustituye por proteína microbiana y los costes de alimentación se reducen. La adición de hidratos de carbono (melaza, harinas de cereales), o la reducción del equivalente de proteínas en el alimento (alimentos balanceados de menor proteína), puede ser cuantitativamente calculada y optimizada, como se muestra aquí en este trabajo.

Parámetros orientativos se utilizaron en este trabajo. La investigación adicional en este campo debe ser dirigida a la recopilación de los datos precisos necesarios para la planificación exacta de la composición del alimento.

Abstract
Controlling the inorganic nitrogen by manipulating the carbonrnitrogen ratios is a potential control method for aquaculture systems. This approach seems to be a practical and inexpensive means of reducing the accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in the pond. Nitrogen control is inducedby feeding bacteria with carbohydrates, and through the subsequent uptake of nitrogen from the water, by the synthesis of microbial proteins. The relationship among the addition of carbohydrates, the reduction of ammonium and the production of microbial proteins depends on the microbial conversion coefficient, the C/N ratio in the microbial biomass, and the carbon contents of the added material. The addition of carbonaceous substrate was found to reduce inorganic nitrogen in shrimp experimental tanks and in tilapia commercial-scale ponds. It was found in tilapia ponds that the produced microbial proteins are taken up by the fish. Thus, part of the feed protein is replaced and feeding costs are reduced. The addition of carbohydrates, or the equivalent reduction of proteins in the feed, can be quantitatively calculated and optimised, as shown here. Approximate parameters were used in this work. Additional research in this field should be
directed at gathering the precise data needed for the exact planning of feed composition.

Documento original en el siguiente enlace; avnimelech-carbon-nitrogenratio

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